Responses will vary by age and developmental stage of the student. Your comfort in answering these questions will set a welcoming tone in your class and school community. An answer can be as simple as: You can just clarify that people love each other in different ways. Some women love and want to be partners with a man and some women love and want to be partners with a woman. What does that mean?
Will your answer be about name-calling, defining what it means to be gay, different kinds of families or some combination of answers? A person who loves, in a very special way, someone who is the same gender. Visit Source Website Adams, J. Scientific consensus, the law, and same sex parenting outcomes. Social Science Research, 53, While the US Supreme Court was considering two related cases involving the constitutionality of same-sex marriage, one major question informing that decision was whether scientific research had achieved consensus regarding how children of same-sex couples fare.
Determining the extent of consensus has become a key aspect of how social science evidence and testimony is accepted by the courts. Here, we show how a method of analyzing temporal patterns in citation networks can be used to assess the state of social scientific literature as a means to inform just such a question.
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Patterns of clustering within these citation networks reveal whether and when consensus arises within a scientific field. Visit Source Website Allen, M. Comparing the impact of homosexual and heterosexual parents on children: Journal of Homosexuality, 32 2 , Should the sexual orientation of the parent play a part in the determination of custody or visitation in order to protect the child?
This meta-analysis summa- rizes the available quantitative literature comparing the impact of heterosexual and homosexual parents, using a variety of measures, on the child ren. The analyses examine parenting practices, the emotional well-being of the child, and the sexual orientation of the child. The results demonstrate no differences on any measures between the heterosexual and homosexual parents regarding parenting styles, emotional adjustment, and sexual orientation of the child ren. In other words, the data fail to support the continuation of a bias against homosexual parents by any court.
Visit Source Website Anderssen, N. Outcomes for children with lesbian or gay parents. A review of studies from to Scandinavian Journal of Psychology , 43 4 , Twenty reported on offspring of lesbian mothers, and three on offspring of gay fathers. The studies encompassed a total of offspring age range 1. Seven types of outcomes were found to be typical: Children raised by lesbian mothers or gay fathers did not systematically differ from other children on any of the outcomes.
The studies indicate that children raised by lesbian women do not experience adverse outcomes compared with other children. The same holds for children raised by gay men, but more studies should be done.
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Visit Source Website Baiocco, R. Lesbian mother families and gay father families in Italy: Sexuality Research and Social Policy, 12 3 , The literature underlines that lesbian mother and gay father families are similar to those with heterosexual parents, regarding family functioning, dyadic satisfaction, and child development. This paper compares 40 same-sex families and 40 heterosexual parents in the Italian context.
In Italy, it is impossible for same-sex couples or single lesbians and gay men to adopt a child, become married, or enter civil partnerships. The participants were administered self-reports, in order to investigate the dyadic relationships, family functioning, and emotional and social adjustment of their children. Lesbian and gay parents reported higher levels of dyadic adjustment, flexibility, and communication in their family than heterosexual parents. Data from the present study demonstrated that children raised by lesbian and gay parents showed a similar level of emotion regulation and psychological well-being than children raised by heterosexual parents.
In Italy, negative attitudes towards same-sex families persist, and educational programs should be developed to deconstruct stereotypes regarding gay and lesbian parent families. These results have important implications in both clinical and social fields. Visit Source Website Bailey, J. Sexual orientation of adult sons of gay fathers. Developmental Psychology, 31 1 , The sexual development of children of gay and lesbian parents is interesting for both scientific and social reasons.
The present study is the largest to date to focus on the sexual orientation of adult sons of gay men. From advertisements in gay publications, 55 gay or bisexual men were recruited who reported on 82 sons at least 17 yrs of age. Furthermore, gay and heterosexual sons did not differ on potentially relevant variables such as the length of time they had lived with their fathers. Visit Source Website Biblarz, T.
How does the gender of parents matter? Journal of Marriage and Family, 72 1 , Claims that children need both a mother and father presume that women and men parent differently in ways crucial to development but generally rely on studies that conflate gender with other family structure variables.
We analyze findings from studies with designs that mitigate these problems by comparing two-parent families with same or different sex coparents and single-mother and single-father families. Strengths typically associated with married mother-father families appear to the same extent in families with 2 mothers and potentially in those with 2 fathers.
Average differences favor women over men, but parenting skills are not dichotomous or exclusive. Visit Source Website Bos, H. Planned gay father families in kinship arrangements. The gay fathers in this study all became parents while in same-sex relationships. They donated sperm to lesbian couples and then shared the child-rearing with them in kinship arrangements.
It was also examined whether aspects that are related specifically to gay fathers i. Data were collected by means of questionnaires filled in by the fathers. However, gay fathers felt less competent in their child-rearing role than heterosexual fathers. We assessed whether associations among family relationships, parenting stress, and child outcomes were different in the 2 household types.
Parental and child characteristics were matched for 95 female same-sex parent and 95 different-sex parent households with children 6 to 17 years old. One parent per household was interviewed by telephone. Multivariate analyses of variance and multiple linear regressions were conducted. No differences were observed between household types on family relationships or any child outcomes. No significant interactions between household type and family relationships or household type and parenting stress were found for any child outcomes.
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Children with female same-sex parents and different-sex parents demonstrated no differences in outcomes, despite female same-sex parents reporting more parenting stress. Future studies may reveal the sources of this parenting stress. Sex Roles, 62 , This study compared gender identity, anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement, and psychosocial adjustment of children in lesbian and heterosexual families; it was furthermore assessed whether associations between these aspects differed between family types.
Data were obtained in the Netherlands from children in 63 lesbian families and 68 heterosexual families. All children were between 8 and 12 years old. Children in lesbian families felt less parental pressure to conform to gender stereotypes, were less likely to experience their own gender as superior and were more likely to be uncertain about future heterosexual romantic involvement. No differences were found on psychosocial adjustment. Gender typicality, gender contentedness and anticipated future heterosexual romantic involvement were significant predictors of psychosocial adjustment in both family types.
Lesbian families and family functioning: Patient Education and Counseling, 59 3 , In the last 30 years a growing body of studies on lesbian parents and the development of children has been published. Forty-four empirical studies on lesbian families published between and were reviewed. In the research on lesbian families two phases were identified. To begin with, systematic studies on lesbian families focused on lesbian families with children who were born in a previous heterosexual relationship.
More recently, studies included lesbian families whose children were born to the lesbian couple planned lesbian families. This paper presents and discusses major finding of the reviewed articles. Studies in both phases have emphasized that lesbian and heterosexual families are very much alike. However, it is the stigma of lesbianism that makes the family situation of lesbian families different.
Healthcare workers should be informed about the similarities and differences between lesbian families and heterosexual families, and about the non-traditional family situation of planned lesbian families. Child adjustment and parenting in planned lesbian-parent families. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 77 1 , One hundred planned lesbian-parent families i. Questionnaires, observations, and a diary of activities were used to collect the data.